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The police report concluded that he was hiding behind a "veneer of respectability" and the allegations "stood up". The investigation was shelved when Sir Norman Skelhorn, the Director of Public Prosecutions at the time, concluded that there was not enough evidence to bring charges.

The decision not to prosecute Smith in was reviewed in and again in , when two further complainants were identified. In , having returned to the Liberal fold, Smith was elected MP for Rochdale and was appointed party whip in His Westminster role afforded him even more power and influence and coincided with an increase in his abusing.

One of his main targets became Knowl View residential school, in Rochdale, which catered for boys aged between seven and He had been part of the campaign to see it established, was present at its official opening and became an all too frequent visitor, especially at night.

In , two years after Smith's death, one former resident, Chris Marshall, waived his anonymity and came forward to claim he had been forced to perform oral sex on Smith as a nine-year-old in the early s.

Another former resident described how he had woken up one night to find a "very big fat man" sitting on his bed molesting him. United States. Type keyword s to search.

Today's Top Stories. This Guy Did a Year-Long Pushup Challenge. Sanjay Gupta's Best Tips for Brain Health. How Taking Up Running Kept Me Sane in During the middle of the fifteenth century there were altogether houses with taxpayers that represented about — inhabitants.

The first reference to this hospital is from The word requiem was suggested from the context. Some building process was still carried on during the seventeenth century.

For the most part this hospital housed leprosy victims. This document concerns this leprosorium. It contains the incomes and expenses for the year with a list of debtors and a summary from as registered by the hospital master Georgius Schad, a layperson from the town who was responsible for the management of the hospital.

Pozsony, October Verso: Controversia inter parochum sancti Laurentii et capellani [! Litteraa contra hospitalenses, quod in detrimentum plebani sancti Laurencii neminem sepeliant nec contra eum [ Attendentes igitur requisicionem huiusmodi fore consonam racioni nec volentes alicui in equitate deficere, ymmo pocius partibus pacem et litibus finem inponere, recensatis me- 25 ritis negocii et cause qualitatem informacionibusque hincinde receptis ac singula singulariter consideratis in iudicio pro tribunali sedentes et solum Deum ac iusticiam inspectis de iuris peritorum consilio et assensu per hanc nostram arbitratoriam et diffinitivam sentenciam pronunciamus, discernimus et de iure declaramus quoddam funus per dictum dominum Ulricum in supradicto hospitali seu infra capellam eiusdem contra voluntatem plebani ante- 30 dicti sepultum fore et esse per eundem dominum Ulricum vel suos exhumandum et supra terram planam ponendum atque per dictum dominum Iacobum plebanum illud, si voluerit, asportari libere et in ecclesie sue czimiterio sepeliri permittendum ac emolimenta et offertoria ratione [ Datum et actum Posonii dicte dyocesis in domo habitacionis nostre sub anno a Nati- 65 vitate Domini millesimo tricentesimo octuagesimo quarto indiccione septima die vicesima secunda mensis Octobris, pontificatus sanctissimi in Christo patris ac domini nostri domini Urbani, divina prudentia pape sexti, anno septimo, presentibus honorabilibus ac discretis viris dominis Laurencio, Posoniensis ecclesie antedicte canonico, et Petro Dankardi, beate Marie ecclesie Traiettensis ecclesie [!

Igitur manu et signo meis solitis et conswetis insignivi rogatus per ipsum dominum Iacobum plebanum supradictum in fidem et testimonium om- nium premissorum et de mandato et licencia ipsius domini prepositi supradicti.

The basis of the conflict concerned parochial rights and the right of burial. Lawrence43, the provost of the Saint Martin parish church was asked to arbitrate in the conflict between the parties.

In the medieval Kingdom of Hungary the importance of the incomes deriving from the funerary right is clearly indicated by the decree of the Council of Buda It threatened everyone with excommunication who tempted the faithful not to be buried in their own par- ish or in the place where their ancestors rested.

However, later Hungarian church councils and synods unanimously stated that the believers were free to choose their own burial place.

As a source of income, on the other hand, the parish churches always wanted to preserve their primacy in burying the dead.

This primary burial right of the parish was in various Hungar- ian towns challenged by the mendicants.

Several papal bulls acknowledged that laymen were allowed to be buried at the friaries, and in Pope Martin V added to this privilege that the friars did not need the previous permission of the parish.

The interesting feature of the document included here is that in Pozsony such a conflict about funerary rights burst out not between the territorial parish of Saint Martin and the Franciscans in the centre, but between the parish priest of the Saint Lawrence suburban par- ish and the order of Saint Anthony that ran the old hospital.

The outcome of the conflict was that the bodies were to be exhumed and reburied in the graveyard of the parish church; and for the future a similar act would involve excommunica- tion until the offence was amended.

Pest, April Verso: a. De piscatura husonum capituli et prepositi Budensis ab insula Rosszigieth usque ad aliam insulam regis Chepel dictam licita. Superb piscatura usonumb.

Nos Mathias, Dei gracia rex Hungarie, Dalmacie, Croacie, etc. Majorossy—Szende, Hospitals cit. Jussi Rantala Turnhout forthcoming.

Cumque nos eosdem iudices nobilium ac iuratos assessores super premissis requisitos habuissemus, iidem ad fidem eorum Deo debitam fidelitatemque nobis et sacro nostro regio dyademati observandamd pro dicenda veritate et iustitia obserenda facto dominice crucis signo per eos nobis prestitam om- 25 nia premissa suo modo et ordine facta fuisse unanimi et concordi testificacione affirmarunt.

In cuius assercionis testimonium presentes litteras nostras petenti eidem capitulo duximus concedendas communi iustitia confirmata.

Datum quinquagesimo tercio die congregacionis antedicte in loco memorato, anno Do- mini millesimo quadringentesimo sexagesimo septimo.

Among the two institutions, the Chapter of Buda was by far the older. Old Buda decreased in importance.

The foundation date of the Saint Nicholas hospital of Pest is unknown; data referring to it come mostly from the fifteenth century The closeness of its location to the second-period mid- fifteenth century town walls also points to a late medieval foundation.

He was also crowned by the opposition king of Bohemia in and ruled from its lands Moravia, Silesia, and Lusatia in practice. From he was Duke of Austria.

His titles as listed in the charter were the fol- lowing: King of Hungary, Dalmacia, Croatia, Rama [Bosnia], Serbia, Galicia, Lodomeria, Cumania and Bulgaria; additionally Bohemia was added after Hungary.

This document is a good example for the fact that many hospitals had received or built mills and used them for grinding grain for their own inmates and also as a source of income.

This latter aspect is emphasised by the fact that the hospital master ran the enterprise together with two local craftsmen. Buda, July Verso: Literae donationales in copia Ludovici regis super ecclesia xenodochiali sancte El- isabeth Neosolii fundata de anno a [pag.

Elisabeth Novizolii Nos Ludovicus, Dei gratia rex Hungariae et Bohemiae etc. The text C was inserted under the title: privilegium regis Ludovici. Si quis vero in praemissis in praei- udicium libertatum eiusdem hospitalis et suorum proventuum facere attentassetm, in amis- sione rei attentaten punitus fuisset, huiusmodique res amissa ad usum pauperum in eodem hospitali degentium erogari solebant et debebant; praeterea, quod in praeiudicium eiusdem hospitalis in dicta civitate Novizolii aliud hospitale erigi ac construi minime posset et quod 35 in antefatum hospitale S.

Elizabeth nullus pauperum vagorum et extraneorum, sed duntaxato de ipsa civitate oriundorum et quocunquep casu ad paupertatem devenientium, sed nec ultra numerum viginti quattuor personarum iuxta antiquam et vetustam hactenus observatam consuetudinem recipi deberent; quo eisdem pauperibus modo praenotato ibidem degentibus de eorum victu commodius provideri posset.

Super quibus quidemq iuribus possessiona- 40 rumr et libertatum praemissis praerogativis praenotatam ecclesiam dicti hospitalis ab antefatis fundatoribus et divis quondam regibus, nostris videlicets praedecessoribus, efficacissimas ett litteras et litteralia instrumenta habuisse, tamen anno superiori, dum dicta civitas nostra No- vizolii per ignis voraginem funditus consumpta fuisset, huiusmodique litteras, litteraliau inst- rumenta una cum aliis eiusdem ecclesiae rebus in ipsa civitatev causa tutioris conservationis 45 per rectorem eiusdem hospitalis pro tunc constitutum apud manus fideles repositas et locata idem magister Clemens amissas conflagrataque fore asserebat, supplicans nobis humiliter et devote, ut huiusmodi iura possessionaria praenominata antefatae ecclesiae dicti hospitalis et per consequens moderno et futuris rectoribus eisdem [!

Nos vero, qui inter alias sollicitudines nostras ecclesiarum Dei praecipuam curam ge- rimus et semper habere intendimus, exaudita et admissa supplicatione praefati Clementis presbiteri magistri, [pag.

Imo damus et conferimus eas- 65 demque libertates valituras innovamus et confirmamus antefatam quoque abusionem, quam, ut praemissumaa est, molendinorumaa dicti hospitalis in equis et curribus eiusdem scalas et alia tormentorum genera ad malefactorum supplicium educere adstringebanturbb, ex gratia nostra speciali abolemus et tollimus, praesentium vigore et testimonio litterarum nostrarum mediantecc, salvis iuribus alienis.

In cuius rei memo- riam firmitatemque perpetuam praesentes litteras nostras privilegiales pendentis et authentici sigilli nostri secreti munimine, quo ut rex Hungariae utimur, roboratas praefatae ecclesiae dicti 80 hospitalis et per consequens rectoribus eiusdem moderno et futuris duximus concedendas.

Datum Budae, in festo divisionis Apostolorum, annoff Domini millesimo quingentesimo vigesimo quartoff, regnorum nostrorum Hungariae et Bohemiae praedictorum etc.

The date and the issue of the original document are not indicated in any of the copies. The charter lists all the land and mills that the hospital had and stated that only the poor of the given town can be taken as inmates.

It forbade people from carrying the instru- ments of torture and those of execution with the horses and wagons of the hospital, which indicates that this was in practice earlier.

Another special right was that no one was allowed to found a hospital in the same town — which was apparently not fulfilled, since there are refer- ences to another institution there, a house for the poor dedicated to Saint Anne.

The most important assets of the Saint Elisabeth hospital were two mills on the River Beszterce Bistrica, Bistrica , on top of which the hospital received monopoly on the grinding of wheat on that river and on an other one, the Garam Gron, Hron.

Lateran, May Summary: Hervay, Repertorium cit. Abbatib et conventui Honeste Vallis de Posega Cisterciensis ordinis Quinque e cclesien- sis diocesisb.

Ex parte venerabilis fratris nostri.. Colocensis archiepiscopi nostris fuit auribus intima- tum, quod, cum olim quoddam hospitale in territorio Bachiensi ad receptionem infirmorum et pauperum de propriis bonis construxerit et facultates eidem, ex quibus concurrentes ad 5 illud sustentari valeant, assignarit, dilectus filius noster I acobus , Prenestrinus electus, tunc in partibus Vngarie apostolice sedis legatus, sibi duxit provide concedendum, ut in eodem hospitali per duos conversos a monasterio vestro pro tempore assumendos perpetuo minis- tretur, dispositione plenaria hospitalis eiusdem sibi et suis successoribus in omnibus semper salva.

Quocirca mandamus, quatenus prefato archiepiscopo duos conversos vestri monasterii 10 viros idoneos ad dicti hospitalis regimen, cum necesse fuerit, concedatis, ut eorum ministerio idem hospitale in suo statu permaneat et alimenta Christi pauperibus, in quorum refectione ipse reficitur, ministrentur.

Datum Laterani, IIII Idus Maii, anno octavoc. The involvement of the Cistercian order in the care of poor laypersons was very unusual in Hungary.

Its church was dedicated to Virgin Mary. The monks arrived from the Zirc monastery which was founded in 54 and their house at Tisztesvölgy existed until ca.

The Archbishopric of Kalocsa Colocensis archiepiscopatus was founded before by King Saint Stephen — Italia Sacra 18, 19, Padova esp.

He died in the Battle of Muhi against the Mongols in Hervay, Repertorium historicum ordinis cisterciensis in Hungaria Bibliotheca Cisterciensis 7, Roma — Pozsony, June Verso: Littera, quod cives habent eligere rectorem antiqui hospitalis.

Universis Christi fidelibus presentes litteras inspecturis capitulum ecclesie Posoniensis salutem in salutis actorea. Adiecerunt eciam, quod ipse frater L antelinus vel fratres suil autl nuncii in aliis provinciis nomine dicti 35 hospitalis petere valeant et recipere omnia, que pauperibus erogantur, et si idem procurator civium in provinciis prenotatis aliqua habere, petere vel acquirere poterit, frater L antelinus aut successores sui nullam partem habere debeant, et si processu temporum per reges, barones vel aliquos nobiles alique donationes specialiter sancto Antonio fierent, fratri L antelino vel successori suo attineant.

Item si aliquis regum vel nobilium ipsis pauperibus Posonii aliquid 40 legaverit, dictus frater nichil habeat facere de eiisdem.

Nec hoc pretermissum est, quod ipse frater L antelinus et sui successores domum lapideam cum domuncula et parvo pomerio, que sunt iuxta domum lapideam usque ad stubam balnearem cum una camera, que adheret stube, cum omnibus utilitatibus et fructibus pro se et sua familia perpetuo habere debeat pleno iure.

Datum in festo sancti Johannis Baptiste, anno Domini Mo CoCoCo nono. Allen trewen kristen lewten, die den brief ansichtig werden, embietten wir, das capitel zw Prespurg, alles hail durch den, der unser aller hailant ist.

Item und sagten uns daz ain yetweder procurator oder verweser des spitals von allerlay almosen und sammung in etleichen besundern gegundten des bischtums ze Gran herdiesshalb Twnaw gen mittemtag- werts gelegen und von aller ander zwgehorünge des spitals demselben Lantzlin oder seinen 75 nochkomen jerleichen nicht mer dienn und raichen solde denn fümftehalb margk feines sil- bers Wienner gewichte auf den tag, der in latein genant ist das dreitzehent kalend Septembris [August 20], das ist der dritt tag vor Sand Matheus tag des heiligen tzwolfbotenm, und allweg auf yeden Sand Mertens tag [November 11] sechtzehen emmer wein des besten, so yn das spital gehaben mag.

Und ob sy darinn sawmig wären, so süllen si das über fumftzehen tag, so sy ainsten ermanet werden, tzwifeldig betzalen fur unser; und ob sy die ordenung oder zwifeldung aber nicht 85 betzalten, so süllen all rentt, nutz, aigenschaft und alles das ettwan zu dem spital gehöret hat, geschoben und ewicleich zw geaigent werden dem oftgenanten bruder oder seinen no- chkomen.

Auch haben sy uns mer gesagt, daz derselb bruder Lantzlin seiner brüder oder sein boten in andern lannden in der gestalt und namen desselben spitals mügen It[em] den armen lewten ichts schüeffen ano iren todpeteno denn Auch ward fur unser nicht verge Self - Interviewee.

TV Movie documentary Self. DeMille: American Epic TV Movie documentary Self. Self uncredited. Griffith: Father of Film DeMille - Episode 3.

B-5 Short Self uncredited. Related Videos. Official Sites: Official Site. Alternate Names: Cecil B. De Mille Cecil B. There is an exceptional attraction in the search for the right 1 The emphasis on the readership and the setting, and therefore on naturalness, word, just out of reach, the semantic gap between two languages that one scours ease of understanding and an appropriate register, when these factors are Roget to fill.

The relief of finding it, the 'smirk' after hitting on the right word when appropriate. These now vastly outnumber books, so it is difficult to calculate the number or the languages of translations on any large scale.

CHAPTER 2 6 The impact of linguistics, sociolinguistics and translation theory, which will become apparent only as more translators pass through polytechnics and The Analysis of a Text universities.

In sum, it all adds up to a new discipline, a new profession; an old pursuit engaged in now for mainly different purposes.

READING THE TEXT You begin the job by reading the original for two purposes: first, to understand what it is about; second, to analyse it from a 'translator's' point of view, which is not the same as a linguist's or a literary critic's.

You have to determine its intention and the way it is written for the purpose of selecting a suitable translation method and identifying particular and recurrent problems.

Understanding the text requires both general and close reading. General reading to get the gist; here you may have to read encyclopaedias, textbooks, or specialist papers to understand the subject and the concepts, always bearing in mind that for the translator the function precedes the description - the important thing about the neutrino in context is not that it is a stable elementary particle, preserving the law of conservation of mass and energy, but that now the neutrino has been found to have mass, the Universe is calculated to be twice as large as previously thought.

A knife is for cutting with, but the blade and the handle are important too - they distinguish the knife from the scissors. Close reading is required, in any challenging text, of the words both out of and in context.

In principle, everything has to be looked up that does not make good sense in its context; common words like serpent F , to ensure they are not being used musically or figuratively sly, deceitful, unscupulous or technically EEC currency or colloquially; neologisms - you will likely find many if you are translating a recent publication for 'non-equivalent' words, see p.

You can compare the translating rather than how to adapt them in order to persuade or instruct a new TL reader- activity to an iceberg: the tip is the translation - what is visible, what is written on ship.

And again, he may be translating a manual of instructions for a less educated the page - the iceberg, the activity, is all the work you do, often ten times as much readership, so that the explanation in his translation may be much larger than the again, much of which you do not even use.

THE INTENTION OF THE TEXT TEXT STYLES In reading, you search for the intention of the text, you cannot isolate this from understanding it, they go together and the title may be remote from the content as Following Nida, we distinguish four types of literary or non-literary text: well as the intention.

Two texts may describe a battle or a riot or a debate, stating 1 Narrative: a dynamic sequence of events, where the emphasis is on the verbs or, the same facts and figures, but the type of language used and even the grammatical for English, 'dummy' or 'empty' verbs plus verb-nouns or phrasal verbs 'He structures passive voice, impersonal verbs often used to disclaim responsibility in made a sudden appearance', 'He burst in'.

The intention of the text 2 Description, which is static, with emphasis on linking verbs, adjectives, represents the SL writer's attitude to the subject matter.

A piece about floors may be 'pushing' floor polishes; about newspapers, a 3 Discussion, a treatment of ideas, with emphasis on abstract nouns concepts , condemnation of the press; about nuclear weapons, an advertisement for them - verbs of thought, mental activity 'consider', 'argue', etc.

What is meant by 'That was clever of him'? Is it ironical, openly or implicitly? In a text showing that BBC Radio 2 is a pale imitation of commercial radio, the irony may only be implicit and obscure to a non-British reader, and the translator may want to make the point more explicitly.

It may be 'iceberg' work to find out, On the basis of the variety of language used in the original, you attempt to since the tone may come through in a literal translation, but the translator has to be characterise the readership of the original and then of the translation, and to decide aware of it.

In the case of a poem or any Again, in a detailed, confused piece about check-ups on elderly patients who work written primarily as self-expression the amount is, I suggest, very little.

You may have to undergo chemotherapy the author's intention is to show that patients may try to assess the level of education, the class, age and sex of the readership if must have a thorough physical check-up before they start a course of drugs: if these are 'marked'.

The average text for translation tends to be for an educated, middle-class A summary of this nature, which uses only a few key words from the original, readership in an informal, not colloquial style.

The most common variety of appears to be isolated from the language, simply to show what happens in real life, 'marked' error in register among student translators tends to be 'colloquial' and and it is indispensable to the translator.

But he still has to 'return' to the text. He 'intimate', e. The other common error, use of formal or official register e.

All this will help you to decide on the degree of But he may be translating an advertisement, a notice, or a set of instructions to formality, generality or specificity and emotional tone you must express when you show his client how such matters are formulated and written in the source language, work on the text.

I suggest: Note that there is some correlation between formality and emotional tone, in that an official style is likely to be factual, whilst colloquialisms and slang tend to be Officialese 'The consumption of any nutriments whatsoever is categoric- emotive.

In translating, the effusiveness of Italian, the formality and stiffness of ally prohibited in this establishment. Neutral 'Eating is not allowed here.

In not so informal language, translate de mains standards of the writer. If he writes 'good', 'fair', 'average', 'competent', en mains by 'decreasingly', tout a fait by 'entirely', d'un seul coup by 'at one attempt' 'adequate', 'satisfactory', 'middling', 'poor', 'excellent'; are his standards relative or 'simultaneously.

Often Similarly, I suggest the following scale of generality or difficulty: there is only a thin line in the critical difference between a positive and a negative Simple opinion, which is not clarified by the 'middle' words I have listed.

The floor of the sea is covered with rows of big mountains and deep pits. The trenches. Regime Neutral using basic vocabulary only 'government' is neutral in French but negative in English.

What is the TL equivalent of the SL periodical, newspaper, textbook, Opaquely technical comprehensible only to an expert journal, etc? You may have to take account of briefer titles, absence of sub-titles isolated by Klenk from gangliosides.

You have to make several assumptions about the SL readership. From the I suggest the following scale of emotional tone: setting of the SL text, as well as the text itself, you should assess whether the readership is likely to be motivated keen to read the text , familiar with the topic Intense profuse use of intensifers 'hot' and the culture, and 'at home' in the variety of language used.

The three typical 'Absolutely wonderful. Finally, if you are translating a poem or an Factual 'cool' important authoritative statement, should you consider the TL reader at all, apart 'Significant, exceptionally well judged, personable, presentable, consid- from concessions or cultural 'scraps' to help him out e.

In fact, the greater the quantity of a language's resources e. The quality of the writing has to worthwhile. If the text is well written, i.

Deciding what is good writing is sometimes Finally, you should note the cultural aspect of the SL text; you should underline all criticised as 'subjective' but it is a decision, like many others, not subjective but neologisms, metaphors, cultural words and institutional terms peculiar to the SL with a subjective element the area of taste which you have to make, using any or third language, proper names, technical terms and 'untranslatable' words.

If a text is well written, the words relating to the mind, that have no cognates in the TL, e. Words will be freshly used with unusual from dialect.

You underline words that you have to consider out of as well as within connotations. A badly written text will be cluttered with stereotyped phrases, context, in order to establish their semantic range, their frontiers: unlike Humpty, recently fashionable general words and probably poorly structured.

Note that you cannot normally decide to make any word mean what you want, and there are language rules and prescriptions have nothing much to do with good writing.

What normally limits to the meaning of any word. The purpose of dictionaries is to matters is a fresh reflection of the reality outside language or of the writer's mind.

If the SL writer is I should say here whilst the meaning of a completely context-determined recognised as important in his field, and he is making an ex-cathedra or official word may appear to be remote from its non-contextual core meaning there must statement, the text is also authoritative.

The point is that 'expressive' texts, i. Thus it might appear to be beyond reason serious imaginative literature and authoritative and personal statements, have to be that the French word communication could possibly mean 'fistula', but it can be translated closely, matching the writing, good or bad, of the original.

Informative translated as such if the fistula is a way of communication between the aorta and the texts, statements that relate primarily to the truth, to the real facts of the matter, pulmonary artery.

Sometimes the link is a secret code. Bear in mind that whilst all texts have connotations, an aura of ideas and feelings suggested by lexical words crudely, 'run' may suggest 'haste', 'sofa' may suggest 'comfort' , and all texts have an 'underlife' viz.

But in a literary text, you have to give precedence to its connotations, the first stage of translation and the basis of the useful discipline of translation since, if it is any good, it is an allegory, a comment on society, at the time and now, criticism.

In fact, such an analysis is, I think, an appropriate training for trans- as well as on its strict setting. A professional translator would not usually make such an analysis explicitly, since he would need to take only a sample in order to establish the properties of a text.

A translation critic, however, after determining the general properties - first of the text and secondly of the translation both these tasks would centre in the respective intentions of translator and critic - would use the under- CHAPTER 3 lined words as a basis for a detailed comparison of the two texts.

To summarise, you have to study the text not for itself but as something that The Process of Translating may have to be reconstituted for a different readership in a different culture.

It begins with choosing a method of approach. Secondly, when we are translating, we translate with four levels more or less consciously in mind: 1 the SL text level, the level of language, where we begin and which we continually but not continuously go back to; 2 the referential level, the level of objects and events, real or imaginary, which we progressively have to visualise and build up, and which is an essential part, first of the comprehension, then of the reproduction process; 3 the cohesive level, which is more general, and grammatical, which traces the train of thought, the feeling tone positive or negative and the various presuppositions of the SL text.

This level encompasses both comprehension and reproduction: it presents an overall picture, to which we may have to adjust the language level; 4 the level of naturalness, of common language appropriate to the writer or the speaker in a certain situation.

Again, this is a generalised level, which constitutes a band within which the translator works, unless he is translating an authoritative text, in which case he sees the level of naturalness as a point of reference to determine the deviation - if any - between the author's level he is pursuing and the natural level.

This level of naturalness is concerned only with reproduction. Finally, there is the revision procedure, which may be concentrated or staggered according to the situation.

This procedure constitutes at least half of the complete process. Both in its referential and its pragmatic aspect, reflect any deviation from a 'natural' style.

The nature of naturalness is discussed in it has an invariant factor, but this factor cannot be precisely defined since it detail in my exposition of the theory of translating below; 'naturalness' is both depends on the requirements and constraints exercised by one original on one grammatical and lexical, and is a touchstone at every level of a text, from paragraph translation.

All one can do is to produce an argument with translation examples to to word, from title to punctuation. Nothing is purely objective or subjective.

There are no cast-iron rules. The level of naturalness binds translation theory to translating theory, and Everything is more or less.

There is an assumption of 'normally' or 'usually' or translating theory to practice. The remainder of my translating theory is in essence 'commonly' behind each well-established principle; as I have stated earlier, quali- psychological - the relationship between language and 'reality' though all we know fications such as 'always', 'never', 'must' do not exist - there are no absolutes.

If one accepts this theory of translating, there is no gap between translation There are two approaches to translating and many compromises between theory and practice.

The theory of translating is based, via the level of naturalness, them : 1 you start translating sentence by sentence, for say the first paragraph or on a theory of translation.

Therefore one arrives at the scheme shown in Figure 2. Which of the two methods you choose may depend on your temperament, or on whether you trust your intuition for the first method or your powers of analysis for the second.

Alternatively, you may think the first method more suitable for a literary and the second for a technical or an institutional text. The danger of the first method is that it may leave you with too much revision to do on the early part, and is therefore time-wasting.

The second method usually preferable can be mechanical; a translational text analysis is useful as a point of reference, but it should not inhibit the free play of your intuition.

Alternatively, you may prefer the first approach for a relatively easy text, the second for a harder one. From the point of view of the translator, any scientific investigation, both statistical and diagrammatic some linguists and translation theorists make a fetish of diagrams, schemas and models , of what goes on in the brain mind?

The contribution of psycholinguistics to translation is limited: the positive, neutral or negative pragmatic effect of a word e.

Osgood's work on semantic differentials is helpful, since the difference between 'positive' and 'negative' i. The heart of translation theory is translation problems admitting that what is a problem to one THE APPROACH translator may not be to another ; translation theory broadly consists of, and can be defined as, a large number of generalisations of translation problems.

A theoretical A translation is something that has to be discussed. In too many schools and discussion of the philosoph; and the psychology of translation is remote from the universities, it is still being imposed as an exercise in felicitous English style, where translator's problems.

Whether you produce a statistical survey through question- the warts of the original are ignored. The teacher more or less imposes a fair copy naires of what a hundred translators think they think when they translate, or which is a 'model' of his own English rather than proposing a version for discussion whether you follow what one translator goes through, mental stage by mental stage, and criticism by students, some of whom will be brighter than he is.

Can you visualise it? If you cannot, you have to 'supplement' substituting encyclopaedia descriptions for dictionary definitions, using the best- the linguistic level, the text level with the referential level, the factual level with the sounding synonyms for literary translation, transferring all Graeco-Latin words, necessary additional information no more from this level of reality, the facts of the continuous paraphrasing, etc.

But there is never any point in scientifically proving matter. In real life, what is the setting or scene, who are the actors or agents, what is the obvious.

This may or may not take you away temporarily from the words in the text. And certainly it is all too easy to immerse yourself in language and to detach yourself from the reality, real or imaginary, that is being described.

Far more THE TEXTUAL LEVEL acutely than writers wrestling with only one language, you become aware of the awful gap between words and objects, sentences and actions or processes , Working on the text level, you intuitively and automatically make certain 'con- grammar and moods or attitudes.

You have to gain perspective distacco, recut , to versions'; you transpose the SL grammar clauses and groups into their 'ready' TL stand back from the language and have an image of the reality behind the text, a equivalents and you translate the lexical units into the sense that appears immedi- reality for which you, and not the author unless it is an expressive or an authorita- ately appropriate in the context of the sentence.

Your base level when you translate is the text. This is the level of the literal The referential goes hand in hand with the textual level.

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